Lanayru Caves is a location from The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword. It is a small cavern located in the Lanayru Desert. The Lanayru Caves serves as a crossroads of sorts between the main Lanayru Desert, the Lanayru Mine, the Lanayru Sand Sea, and the Lanayru Gorge. It is inhabited by Golo, a Goron archaeologist.
Using the Clawshots he obtained from completing the Trial of Lanayru Desert to venture further into the region, Link arrives during his search for Nayru's Flame. He finds the door leading to the Lanayru Sand Sea locked and meets Golo, Gorko's assistant who is currently researching the legend of the Three Dragons. When Link tells him he is searching for a flame, Golo suggests he investigate the Lanayru Sand Sea and gives Link the Small Key to unlock the door leading to it.
There are two stools in the cave which Link can sit in to recover health. If Link sits in the stool near Golo, he will mention how archaeological digs cost money and Golo will ask him for 10 Rupees to fund his excavation. By investing in Golo's archaeological dig, Link will receive 100 Rupees when the entrance leading to Lanayru Gorge is excavated later in the game.
Interestingly, there is a Treasure Chest here that contains a Monster Horn, which after Link opens prompts Fi to inform him that he can also steal Monster Horns from Bokoblins that carry them via the use of his Whip.
In the middle of the cave there is a ring of Bomb Flowers which Link can use to resupply his Bomb Bag with Bombs. If Link plays the Goddess's Harp in the middle of the ring, a Gossip Stone will appear. This Gossip Stone points out that Link can obtain a Shield stronger than any other by completing the challenges of a Dragon who lives in the desert.