The Goddess Pedestal is a pedestal of stone that serves as the holder of the Goddess Sword after it was left Inside the Statue of the Goddess for the Goddess' chosen Hero in The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword.
After Zelda is taken away by evil forces to the land below the clouds, a mysterious figure appears in Link's dreams. He is awakened in the middle of the night, finding the figure to be real, and follows it to the grove of the Statue of the Goddess. Once there, the figure opens a hidden doorway leading inside the statue itself. There he found the Goddess Sword inside its Pedestal. Inside the chamber, the figure reveals its name to be Fi, the spiritual manifestation of the Goddess Sword. After revealing that Link was her master and persuaded him to draw the sword from the pedestal and instructed Link to raise the sword skyward to perform Skyward Strike on a nearby Goddess Crest. Eventually Zelda's father, Gaepora appeared and explained that knowledge of the Chamber containing the Goddess Sword and its pedestal existence was passed down to a select few along with a handful of words pertaining to it, with himself being one of the few who knew of their existence. Inscribed on the Pedestal is the name of the Goddess, Hylia written in Hylian.
At the end of the game, the Master Sword is placed into either an identical pedestal or the Goddess Pedestal itself (as the Statue of the Goddess is transported to the Sealed Grounds to destroy The Imprisoned as a result of Link's wish on the Triforce).
Given its possible appearance at the end of Skyward Sword, it is possible that the Goddess Pedestal eventually became the Pedestal of Time.
The Goddess Pedestal appears in its chamber in the Skyloft stage. During the game's story, Link is beckoned by Fi to come to the Chamber. Inside he finds the Goddess Sword inside its pedestal, before it transforms into its Spirit form. Though Link is not her master as he is not the Link of her Era, she considers him to be a different Master and decides to aid him in defeating Ghirahim and the Dark Forces lead by Volga. After the defeat of Cia and Ganondorf, Fi returns to her time and her pedestal to wait for the Goddess' chosen hero of her timeline to appear.